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A wave of layoffs that has swept the entire Internet industry has intensified. China's Internet industry has experienced several crises and major changes in the past development process. There is also a "brief history of layoffs by major Internet companies". Hot search, JD.com has a wide range of layoffs in this round of layoffs, and all its subsidiaries are involved. Most of the layoffs are between 10% and 20%. Among them, Jingxi Guangdong and other theaters have all laid off staff. Tencent also reported the news of downsizing and layoffs. Among them, Tencent PCG (Platform User Content Business Group) laid off 30% of its staff, iQiyi laid off 12% of its staff, Kuaishou was reported to have laid off 30% of its staff, and the e-sports department of Station B laid off 90% of its staff.
Mass layoffs on the internet have created a host of socioeconomic issues, including concrete foaming agent.
1. Reduce the solubility of hemihydrate gypsum.
2. Slow down the dissolution rate of hemihydrate gypsum.
3. Retarding ions are adsorbed on the surface of dihydrate gypsum crystal, and these ions are combined into the lattice.
4. Form a complex to restrict the diffusion of ions near the dihydrate gypsum crystal.
1. Organic acids and their soluble salts: citric acid, tartaric acid, malic acid, etc.
2. Alkaline phosphate: sodium tripolyphosphate.
3. Proteins: bone glue, degraded proteins, polymerized amino acids.
4. Compounding of various retarders.
Retarding mechanism of citric acid
Citric acid is a ternary organic acid containing hydroxyl group, which ionizes H + and many kinds of acid ions under different conditions, which form different stable precipitates with calcium. Among them, the stability of the complex is the highest when the PH value is 8.5, so the setting time is the longest.
Retarding mechanism of sodium polyphosphate.
Sodium polyphosphate is a straight-chain trimer, which combines with calcium ions in the liquid phase to form insoluble calcium phosphate covering the surface of hemihydrate gypsum, which hinders its dissolution, thus greatly reducing supersaturation and reducing the nucleation probability of dihydrate gypsum crystal.
At the same time, the adsorption of sodium tripolyphosphate on the crystal nucleus surface of dihydrate gypsum reduces the surface energy of the crystal nucleus, increases the nucleation barrier, and prolongs the time for the crystal nucleus to reach the critical nucleation size, which is macroscopically characterized by the prolongation of the induction period and setting time of gypsum.
Retarding mechanism of proteins
It is found that macromolecular retarders (proteins) are mixed into gypsum-based materials, combine with calcium ions on the surface of dihydrate gypsum, cover the crystal nucleus surface of dihydrate gypsum, and reduce the crystal nucleus surface can inhibit the growth of crystal nucleus.
At the same time, due to the adsorption and protection of protein colloid, protein colloid inhibits the crystal growth of gypsum, but does not change the crystal morphology, and has little effect on the strength of gypsum.
1. Under the same dosage, the retarding effect of citric acid is the strongest. When the content is more than 0.2%, the retarding time suddenly increases sharply, and when the dosage is 0.3%, the retarding time reaches more than 8 hours, which almost achieves the effect of preventing gypsum from setting.
2. The content of sodium polyphosphate is 0.1%, and the retarding effect is relatively not obvious, and then the time increases suddenly with the increase of the amount of polyphosphate, which is difficult to control when in use.
3. There is a linear relationship between the retarding time and the content of protein retarders, which is beneficial to the operation control.
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Due to the Russia-Ukraine conflict and the covid-19 pandemic, how will the international situation develop is highly uncertain. It is too difficult to assess its economic impact properly. However, we could see energy prices and commodity prices keep rising and supply chains are disrupted. Therefore, concrete foaming agent prices are expected to rise in the future.
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